Kamis, 04 Februari 2010


Computers =A computer is a tool used to process the data according to procedures that have been formulated. Computer word originally used to describe the work people do arithmetic calculations, with or without tools, but the meaning of this word and then transferred to the machine itself. Their origins, processing information almost exclusively related to arithmetical problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks unrelated to mathematics.

Broadly speaking, the computer can be defined as an electronic device that consists of several components, which can work together between the components with one another to produce a program based on information and data. The computer components are included: Screen Monitor, CPU, Keyboard, Mouse and Printer (as a complement). Without a computer printer can still perform his job as a data processor, but the extent not yet seen on the screen monitor in the form of print (paper).

In such a definition is a tool like a slide rule, mechanical calculator types ranging from abacus, and so on, until all contemporary electronic computers. Better terms suitable for a broad sense such as "computer" is "that process information" or "information-processing system."

Currently, computers are increasingly sophisticated. However, before the computer is not small, sophisticated, cool and light as now. In the history of computers, there are 5 generations of computer history.

Generation Computer

First Generation
With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war trying to develop the potential of computers for strategic mengeksploit owned computers. This increased funding to accelerate the development of computers and computer technical progress. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer, the Z3, to design airplanes and missiles.

Party allies also made other progress in the development of computer power. In 1943, the British completed a secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to break the secret code used by Germany. Impact of The Colossus's influenced the development of the computer industry because of two reasons. First, Colossus was not a multi-purpose computer (general-purpose computer), it was only designed to decode secret messages. Second, the existence of the machine was kept secret until decades after the war ended.

The work done by the Americans at that time produced some other progress. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is the long half-sized football field and has a range of 500 miles along the cable. The Harvard-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical components. Beropreasi machine is slow (it takes 3-5 seconds for each calculation) and inflexible (order calculations can not be changed). The calculator can perform basic arithmetic calculations and more complex equations.

Another computer development at present is the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), which is made by the cooperation between the United States government and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer is a machine that consumes huge power of 160kW.

This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general-purpose computer) that work 1000 times faster than Mark I.

In the mid 1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the University of Pennsylvania team, initiating concepts in computer design to the next 40 years is still used in computer engineering. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in the year 1945 with a good memory to hold data or programs. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key element to the von Neumann architecture is the central processing unit (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) are made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer to use the model of the Von Neumann architecture.

Both the United States Census Bureau and General Electric have a UNIVAC. One of the impressive results achieved by the UNIVAC dalah success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election.

The first generation computers were characterized by the fact that operating instructions are made specifically for a particular task. Each computer has a program different binary code called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and the speed limit. Another feature of the first generation computers was the use of vacuum tube (which makes the computer at that time were huge) and a magnetic cylinder for storage of data.

Second Generation

In 1948, the discovery of the transistor greatly influenced the development of computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in television, radio, and computers. As a result, the size of the electric machines dramatically reduced.

Transistors into use in the computer starting in 1956. Another invention in the form of the development of magnetic core memory to help the development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than their predecessors. The first machine that utilizes this new technology is the supercomputer. IBM makes a supercomputer named Stretch, and Sprery-Rand makes a computer named LARC. These computers, which was developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle large amounts of data, a capability that is needed by researchers atoms. The machine is very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thus limiting its popularity. There are only two LARC ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and others in the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington, DC Second-generation computers replaced machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations-singakatan to replace the binary code.

In the early 1960s, computers began to appear successful second generation in business, at university, and the government. The computers of this second generation is a fully computer using transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the current computer: printers, storage on disks, memory, operating system, and programs.

One important example of this computer at the time was the IBM 1401 is widely accepted in industry circles. In 1965, almost all large businesses use computers to process the second generation of financial information.

Program stored in the computer and programming language in it to give flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer could print customer invoices and purchase and then run the product design or calculate payroll. Some programming languages began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN) start commonly used. This programming language replaces complicated machine code with words, sentences, and mathematical formulas are more easily understood by humans. This allows a person to program and manage the computer. Various emerging careers (programmer, systems analyst, and expert computer systems). Software industry also began to emerge and grow during this second-generation computers.

Third Generation

Although transistors in many cases the vacuum tube, but transistors generate considerable heat, which can potentially damage the internal parts of the computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. The IC combined three electronic components in a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. In Scientists later managed to include more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. A result, computers become smaller because the components were squeezed onto the chip. The progress of other third-generation computers are using the operating system (operating system) that allows machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.

Fourth Generation

After IC, the development objectives became more obvious: reduce the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components on a chip. In the 1980s, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of parts in a single chip.

Ultra-large scale integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. The ability to fit so much in a chip half the size of coins helped diminish the size and price of computers. It also increased their power, efficiency and reliability. Intel 4004 chip made in 1971 led to advances in IC by placing all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a very small chip. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task specific. Now, a microprocessor can be manufactured and then programmed to meet all demands. Not long later, each household devices like microwave ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection (EFI) is equipped with a microprocessor.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. Computers no longer be dominated large corporations or government agencies. In the mid-1970s, computer assemblers to offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called minikomputer, sold with the software package that is easy to use by the layman. The software is most popular at the time was word processing programs and spreadsheets. In the early 1980s, video games like Atari 2600 to attract more home computers are sophisticated and can be programmed.

In 1981, IBM introduced its Personal Computer (PC) for use in the home, office and school. The number of PCs in use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982 year. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continued evolution towards smaller sizes, from computers that are on the table (desktop computers) into a computer that can be inserted into the bag (laptop), or even a handheld computer that can (palmtops).

IBM PC to compete with Apple Macintosh computers in the market fighting. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the computer graphics system, while his rival was still using a text-based computer. Macintosh also popularized the use of mouse devices.

At the present time, we know the way to the use of IBM compatible CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPUs made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the fourth-generation computer classes.

Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential being developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, these computers can be connected together in a network for memory sharing, software, information, and also to communicate with each other. Computer network allows a single computer to form electronic co-operation to complete a process task. By using direct wiring (also known as Local Area Network or LAN), or a phone cable, the network can become very large.

Fifth generation

Defining a fifth-generation computer becomes quite difficult because this stage is still very young. Imaginative example is the fifth generation computer HAL9000 computer from fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke titled 2001: Space Odyssey. HAL shows all the desired functions of a fifth-generation computer. With artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence or AI), the HAL may have enough reason to do with human percapakan, using visual feedback, and learning from his own experience.

Although perhaps HAL9000 realization is still far from reality, many of the functions that have already materialized. Some computers can receive verbal instructions and are able to imitate human reasoning. The ability to translate a foreign language also becomes possible. This facility was modest. However, these facilities become much more complicated than expected when programmers realized that human pengertia highly dependent on context and understanding rather than just translate the words directly.

Many advances in the field of computer design and manufacturing technologies allow semkain fifth-generation computer. Two of mainly engineering progress is the ability of parallel processing, which will replace the non-Neumann model. Non Neumann model will be replaced with a system capable of coordinating a lot of CPU to work in unison. Another is technological advances that allow the flow of superconducting electric without any obstacles, which will accelerate the speed of information.

Japan is a country well known in the jargon of socialization and the fifth generation computer project. Institution ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) was also formed to make it happen. Many of the news stating that the project has failed, but some other information that the success of the fifth generation computer project will bring new changes in the paradigm of computerization in the world

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